The Home of Midwood Science Research

And the winners of the 2018 Midwood Science Fair are…

Posted on Friday, June 8, 2018 by for Awards, Science Fair.

1st Place

Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Alyssa Kattan
The Ability of Chiral Glucose Molecules to Rotate the Plane of Polarized Light
Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Diyora Mullaeva & Sally Gao
The effect of climate on the sustainability of solar and battery powered cars

2nd Place

Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Naffisat Atanda
What Birth Order Says about your Average
Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Duha Mousa
Conformity in Midwood High School
Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Sammi Lin & Vivian Chong
The Effect of Breaks on Learning New Information

3rd Place

Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Jaylene Cruz
RFID: Blocking Radio Frequency Identification Signals
Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Serena Duran & Victoria Habbchy
The Effect of Substrate Concentration on the Activity of the Enzyme Catalase

Honorable Mention

Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Nadzeya Fliaha
The Relative Probability of Banking a Basketball
Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Sarah Sookoo & Idrees Ilahi
pH and Arsenic Correlation in Baby Formula
Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Jubaida Mehak & Zahra Mehdi
Fermentation on the Production of Biofuels
Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Jessica Lin & Lameya Rahman
Corrosion of Steel and pH
Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Noor Mohammad & Alana Neria
Ladybugs vs. X-ray Radiation
Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Tanisa Rahman & Nolani Carter
Makeshift Polarimeter: Chiral Molecules and Angle of Polarization

Team NYC collects over $22,800 in prize money at the 2018 Intel ISEF

Posted on Sunday, May 20, 2018 by for Awards, ISEF.

Team NYC sent 14 students off to the 2018 Intel International Science and Engineering Fair (ISEF) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania last week. By noon Friday, they had collectively amassed over $22,800 in prize money. (I have to use the word "over" since some of the special awards do not have well-defined monetary values.) The awards are distributed over two days — Thursday evening is for Special Awards, sponsored by a variety of professional organizations, and Friday morning is for Grand Awards, sponsored mostly by the Intel Foundation.

The Intel ISEF is the largest pre-college science competition in the world. Each year, approximately 1,800 high school students from more than 75 countries, regions, and territories are awarded the opportunity to showcase their independent research and compete for $4 million in prizes.

Overhead view of a portion of the convention hall Overhead view of a portion of the convention hall Overhead view of a portion of the convention hall

Every year, millions of students worldwide compete in local and school-sponsored science fairs. Only the best projects form these affiliated fairs are accepted into the Intel ISEF. Students in the five boroughs compete in the New York City Science and Engineering Fair (NYCSEF), a joint venture between the City University of New York and the New York City Department of Education. NYCSEF is itself a large event, with something like 450 projects passing the rigorous standards of the Scientific Review Committee. NYCSEF is so huge that it has to be broken down into two events: a preliminary round and a finals round.

Everyone who attends the Intel ISEF is automatically a winner. Walking through the doors of the convention center into the project space is a reward unto itself for months or even years of toil. An Intel ISEF is five days of practice, competition, entertainment, excitement, rewards, and new friends. What Team NYC accomplished in the week of May 13–18 is not entirely measurable. But for those of you who like hard data, here are the awards we brought back.

First Award of $3,000

  • Ella Feiner (Cellular and Molecular Biology) Horace Mann School
    Project: Exploring Posterior Growth in D. rerio Using a Live Cell Cycle Biosensor.
    Ella's project was declared Best of Category in Cellular and Molecular Biology, which comes with an additional $5,000. She also received an all-expense paid four week trip and scholarship to the Bessie Lawrence International Summer Science Institute from the American Committee for the Weizmann Institute of Science.

Second Award of $1,500

  • Suha Hussain (Systems Software) Queens High School for the Sciences at York College
    Project: A New Method for the Exploitation of Speech Recognition Systems.
    Suha received four special awards: a Fourth Award of $500 from the Association for Computing Machinery, a $1,500 Data Award from GoDaddy, a $1,000 Second "Science Security" Award from the National Security Agency Research Directorate, and a $1,800 STEM Cloud Award in Systems Software from the Shanghai STEM Cloud Center.
  • Eeshan Tripathii (Environmental Engineering) The Dalton School
    Project: The Air We Breathe: Reducing Health Risks by Improving IAQ: An Innovative, Smart, and Responsive Ductless System Optimized by Stochastic Simulation and Machine Learning.
    Eeshan also received a $1,000 Thermo Fisher PPI Award "for driving Practical Process Improvement in science".

Third Award of $1,000

  • Timur (Timmy) Ibragimov (Physics and Astronomy) Staten Island Technical High School
    Project: Stochasticity on Astronomical Scales: A Half-life formalism for Predicting the Disruption of Small-N Body Systems.
    Timmy also received a $2,500 First Award from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
  • Vera Zarubin (Materials Science) Bronx High School of Science
    Project: Novel Fabrication of Organic Multifunctional Materials via Magnetic Alignment

Fourth Award of $500

  • Brendon Choy (Chemistry) Hunter College High School
    Project: Cutting off Cancer: Design, Analysis, and Synthesis of Novel Vascular Disrupting Agents.
  • Ryan Bose Roy (Translational Medical Science) Hunter College High School
    Project: Novel Warning Mechanism for At-Risk Stroke and Epilepsy Patients Through Detection of Harmful Levels of Cortisol.
  • Alexandria Ang (Earth and Environmental Sciences) Bronx High School of Science
    Project: A Destructive Invader: How Rising Atmospheric CO2 Is Aiding Noctiluca scintillans in Taking Over Tropical Oceans.

Special Awards

  • Brian Wu & Bi Tian (Jack) Yuan (Physics and Astronomy) Horace Mann School & Columbia Preparatory School
    Project: Finding the Next Tatooine: Discovery of Giant Planets, Brown Dwarfs, and the First-Ever Circumbinary Planet Using Doppler Spectroscopy.
    Brian and Jack each received a Renewable Tuition Scholarship Award to West Virginia University.
  • Phoebe Yates (Behavioral and Social Sciences) Institute for Collaborative Education
    Project: The Impact of Emotionally Targeted Branding on Social Behavior.
    Pheobe also received a Certificate of Honorable Mention and a one-year student membership with the American Psychological Association.

Participants

  • Aushna Saleem (Animal Sciences) Midwood High School at Brooklyn College
    Project: The Effects of Monk Parakeet Age on Sociality.
  • Ari Firester (Environmental Engineering) Hunter College High School
    Project: Desalinating Water Using Electric Fields.
  • Hanna Yip (Robotics and Intelligent Machines) The Spence School
    Project: A Fast and Accurate Open-Source Solo Musical Instrument Classifier.

No clean sweep at BC Sci Day, but 2 out of 3 ain’t bad

Posted on Tuesday, May 8, 2018 by for Awards, Brooklyn College.

Midwood Science won two of the three awards in the high school division at Brooklyn College's annual Science Research Day on Friday, May 4, 2018 ending a four year long streak of clean sweeps (2014, 2015, 2016, 2017). Kevin Chen and Hafsa Fatima placed first and second, respectively. Both students worked under the supervision of long-time friend of Midwood Science, Dr. Frank Grasso in the Biomimetic and Cognitive Robotics (BCR) lab at Brooklyn College. Third place went to Staten Island Tech student Kemal Aziz, who worked under the supervision of Dr. Karl Sandeman in the Department of Physics at Brooklyn College. Both Dr. Grasso and Dr. Sandeman have mentored projects good enough to attend the Intel International Science and Engineering Festival (ISEF) — Dr. Grasso in 2018 and Dr. Sandeman in 2016.

Brooklyn College Science Research Day is an annual event that showcases the work done by students with research mentors at Brooklyn College and other CUNY schools. This year, around 125 students presented their research across 14 categories in STEM, with over 50 faculty members and students from the college serving as judges. First, second, and third place prizes were awarded in each of the three divisions: high school, undergraduate and graduate.

Four people in a rowGlenn Elert (teacher), Kevin Chen, Hafsa Fatima, Susan Katzoff (teacher) Two people, poster, two peopleGlenn Elert (teacher), Dr. Frank Grasso (professor), Fizza Nayab, Larissa Brijmohan
  1. Kevin Chen, a junior from Midwood, won first place in the high school division for his project "Aggression on the beach: Crowding increases aggression levels in fiddler crab (Uca pugilator) colonies." Kevin worked under the supervision of Dr. Frank Grasso in the Biomimetic and Cognitive Robotics (BCR) lab at Brooklyn College.
  2. Hafsa Fatima, a senior from Midwood, won second place in the high school division for her project "The effect of temperature on the frequency of vocalization of Myiopsitta monachus". Hafsa also worked under the supervision of Dr. Frank Grasso in the Biomimetic and Cognitive Robotics (BCR) lab at Brooklyn College.
  3. Kemal Aziz, a senior from Staten Island Tech, won third place in the high school division for his project "Cooling through quantum mechanics: Magnon-based description of magneto caloric effects in La-Fe-Si, CoMnSi, and gadolinium". Kemal worked under the supervision of Dr. Karl Sandeman in the Department of Physics at Brooklyn College.

Group photo under a flowering tree
Susan Katzoff (teacher), Fizza Nayab, Glenn Elert (teacher), Hafsa Fatima, Soanne Saint Victor, Joyce Chow, Aushna Saleem, Naila Mirza, Ivy Li, Kevin Chen, Beien Lin, Kathy Mania, Larissa Brijmohan, Annable Xie, Nursat Jahan

Midwood Science students collect 3 gold medals at ACT-SO, Kiandra Peart wins gold in Entrepreneurship and Poetry

Posted on Monday, May 7, 2018 by for ACT-SO, Awards.

Saturday, April 21, 2018 marked the 30th time the three New York City branches of the NAACP sponsored ACT-SO — the Afro-Academic, Cultural, Technological, and Scientific Olympics. ACT-SO is an "Olympics of the Mind" with up to 32 different categories and chances to win medals and cash prizes. This year's New York City ACT-SO was once again held at George Wingate High School — it's home for most of the past 30 events. Awards were announced on Monday, May 7, 2018 at St. Francis College in Downtown Brooklyn.

2018 marks the first time Midwood High School entered and medalled in each of the five major categories: STEM, humanities, fine arts, performing arts, and business. Kiandra Peart lead the team, earning a pair of gold medals in Entrepreneurship and Poetry and a bronze medal in Sculpture. Calvin Huynh, Rana Mohamed, and Saba Iqbal brought home gold in Microbiology, Engineering, and Earth & Space Sciences, respectively. Soanne Saint Victor earned bronze in Biology and Instrumental Classical. The total medal count for Midwood was 5 gold, 3 silver, and 8 bronze.

Kiandra, Calvin, and Rana will be competing in the National ACT-SO July 13–15. The National ACT-SO is a part of the NAACP Annual Convention, which is being held this year at the Henry B. González Convention Center in San Antonio, Texas. With over 8000 delegates expected to attend Kiandra, Calvin, and Rana are sure to have an exciting time.

Still group photo

Gold Medal Winners

  • Kiandra Peart won a gold medal in Entrepreneurship for her independent business "Kustoms By Ki", a second gold medal in Poetry for her composition entitled "The Nation", and a bronze medal in sculpture.
  • Calvin Huynh won a gold medal in Microbiology for his project "Conditions that promote the sub-cellular migration of nucleolin (NCL) to the cell surface." Calvin worked under the supervision of Dr. Anjana D. Saxena in the Department of Biology at Brooklyn College.
  • Rana Mohamed won a gold medal in Engineering for her project "Energy monitoring systems for mobile robotic systems." Rana worked under the supervision of Dr. Joo H. Kim in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at NYU Tandon School of Engineering.
  • Saba Iqbal won a gold medal in Earth & Space Sciences for her project "Indicating an atmospheric mercury pollution source using moss as a biomonitor." Saba worked under the supervision of Dr. Anthony Carpi and Dr. Erin Mann in the Department of Sciences at John Jay College.

Silver Medal Winners

  • Jennifer Duong won a silver medal in Chemistry for her project "Loading lauric acid into electrospun polystyrene nanofibers." Jennifer worked under the supervision of Dr. Ping Lu and Ms. Rawan Ghaban in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at Long Island University.
  • Sabina Kubayeva won a silver medal in Medicine & Health for a project she completed with her partner Elizabeth Joseph entitled "Layer-specific decreases in hippocampal PKMζ protein in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease." Elizabeth and Sabina worked under the supervision of Dr. Todd Sacktor and Dr. Panayiotis Tsokas in the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology at SUNY Downstate Medical Center.
  • Benjamin Nguyen won a silver medal in Computer Science for his project "Climate controlled Raspberry Pi Model B video looper via temperature sensor and PC fan controlled by Arduino Uno." Benjamin worked under the supervision of Dr. Xiaohai (Richard) Li in the Department of Computer Engineering Technology at the New York City College of Technology.

Animated group photo

Bronze Medal Winners

  • Soanne Saint Victor won a bronze medal in Biology for her project "The nest composition of monk parakeets." Soanne worked under the supervision of Dr. Frank Grasso in the Department of Psychology at Brooklyn College. She also won a second bronze medal in Instrumental Classical for a performance on the steel pan.
  • Hebah Jihad won a bronze medal in Biology for her project "The effect of symmetry on the perception of beauty." Hebah worked under the supervision of Mr. Glenn Elert in the Physical Science Department at Midwood High School.
  • Albina Kukic & Wendy Lliguichuzhca won a bronze medal in Medicine & Health for their project "Altruism in adolescence measured by empathy, parental influence, peer influence, and societal influence." Albina and Wendy worked under the supervision of Professor Emeritus Dr. Uwe Gielen and Dr. Sung Hun Kim in the Department of Psychology at St. Francis College.
  • Kathy Mania won a bronze medal in Earth & Space Sciences for a project she completed with her partner Beien Lin entitled "Soil structure and heavy metals in engineered soils for stormwater management." Kathy and Beien worked under the supervision of Dr. Zhongqi (Joshua) Cheng and Dr. Maha Deeb Collet in the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Brooklyn College.
  • Naila Mirza won a bronze medal in Biology for her project "Effect of season on the group size of the Myiopsitta monachus." Naila worked under the supervision of Dr. Frank Grasso in the Department of Psychology at Brooklyn College.
  • Vincent Wang & Jessie Zheng won a bronze medal in Engineering for their project "Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue using electrospun nanofibers." Jessie and Vincent worked under the supervision of Dr. Ping Lu and Ms. Simone Murray in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at Long Island University.

14 Midwood students advance to finals at NYCSEF

Posted on Saturday, March 10, 2018 by for Awards, NYCSEF.

The New York City Science and Engineering Fair (NYCSEF) is the city’s largest high school research competition. More than 700 students from around the city submitted applications in 2018. The top 130 projects were selected to advance to the Finals Round on Tuesday, March 20, 2018 at the American Museum of Natural History. Midwood High School will send 14 students presenting 9 projects to this year’s competition under the big blue whale. Awards will be presented on Monday, March 26, 2018 in the Tribeca Performing Arts Center at the Borough of Manhattan Community College 4:00–6:00 PM.

NYCSEF 'periodic table' logo

  • Yiming Dai & Linda Chen (Psychology)
    "Difference among stress levels between adolescents with immigrant status and adolescents w/o immigrant status." Yiming and Linda worked under the supervision of Dr. Steven Anolik in the Department of Psychology at St. Francis College.
  • Jennifer Duong (Engineering)
    "Loading lauric acid into electrospun polystyrene nanofibers." Jennifer worked under the supervision of Dr. Ping Lu and Ms. Rawan Ghaban in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at Long Island University.
  • Hafsa Fatima (Animal Sciences)
    "The effect of temperature on the frequency of vocalization of Myiopsitta monachus." Hafsa worked under the supervision of Dr. Frank Grasso in the Department of Psychology at Brooklyn College.
  • Elizabeth Joseph & Sabina Kubayeva (Medicine)
    "Layer-specific decreases in hippocampal PKMζ protein in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease." Elizabeth and Sabina worked under the supervision of Dr. Todd Sacktor and Dr. Panayiotis Tsokas in the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology at SUNY Downstate Medical Center.
  • Albina Kukic & Wendy Lliguichuzhca (Psychology)
    "Altruism in adolescence measured by empathy, parental influence, peer influence, and societal influence." Albina and Wendy worked under the supervision of Professor Emeritus Dr. Uwe Gielen and Dr. SungHun Kim in the Department of Psychology at St. Francis College.
  • Kathy Mania & Beien Lin (Environmental Sciences)
    "Soil structure and heavy metals in engineered soils for stormwater management." Kathy and Beien worked under the supervision of Dr. Zhongqi (Joshua) Cheng and Dr. Maha Deeb Collet in the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Brooklyn College.
  • Rana Mohamed (Engineering)
    "Energy monitoring systems for mobile robotic systems." Rana worked under the supervision of Dr. Joo H. Kim in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at NYU Tandon School of Engineering.
  • Aushna Saleem (Animal Sciences)
    "The effects of age on monk parakeet aggressive and social behavior." Aushna worked under the supervision of Dr. Frank Grasso in the Department of Psychology at Brooklyn College.
  • Mei Mei Weng & Judy Huang (Psychology)
    "Effects of birth order on the stress levels of immigrant teenagers." Mei Mei and Judy worked under the supervision of Dr. Steven Anolik in the Department of Psychology at St. Francis College.

Midwood at the 2018 JSHS, more semifinalists than ever

Posted on Friday, February 9, 2018 by for Awards, JSHS.

February 4, 2018 was a busy Sunday morning for Midwood Science. As has been custom for the last 10 years, York College in Queens hosted the annual New York City Metro Junior Science and Humanities Symposium (JSHS). 12 Midwood students representing 9 projects made it to the Semifinals round — the largest number we’ve ever had. Benjamin Nguyen (Engineering) and Saba Iqbal (Environmental Sciences) placed Second in their respective categories. Katie Nikishina (Engineering) and the team of Kathy Mania and Beien Lin (Environmental Sciences) placed Third.

Second Place

  • Benjamin Nguyen (Engineering)
    "Climate controlled Raspberry Pi Model B video looper via temperature sensor and PC fan controlled by Arduino Uno." Benjamin worked under the supervision of Dr. Xiaohai (Richard) Li in the Department of Computer Engineering Technology at New York City College of Technology.
  • Saba Iqbal (Environmental Sciences)
    "Indicating an atmospheric mercury pollution source using moss as a biomonitor." Saba worked under the supervision of Dr. Anthony Carpi and Dr. Erin Mann in the Department of Sciences at John Jay College.

Third Place

  • Katie Nikishina (Engineering)
    "Capillary action on 20% polystyrene in dimethylformamide nanofibers partially immersed in paraffin wax." Katie worked under the supervision of Dr. Ping Lu and Ms. Simone Murray in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at Long Island University.
  • Kathy Mania & Beien Lin (Environmental Sciences)
    "Soil structure and heavy metals in engineered soils for storm water management." Kathy and Beien worked under the supervision of Dr. Zhongqi (Joshua) Cheng and Dr. Maha Deeb Collet in the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Brooklyn College.

Midwood's 2018 NYC Metro JSHS Semifinalists
Back row: Beien Lin, Joyce Chow, Benjamin Nguyen, Kathy Mania. Front row: Naila Mirza, Saba Iqbal, Vincent Wang, Jessie Zheng, Aushna Saleem, Jennifer Duong, Ivy Li, Katie Nikishina

Semifinalist

  • Naila Mirza (Behavioral and Social Sciences)
    "Effect of season on the group size of the Myiopsitta monachus." Naila worked under the supervision of Dr. Frank Grasso in the Department of Psychology at Brooklyn College.
  • Aushna Saleem (Behavioral and Social Sciences)
    "The effects of age on monk parakeet aggressive and social behavior." Aushna worked under the supervision of Dr. Frank Grasso in the Department of Psychology at Brooklyn College.
  • Joyce Chow & Ivy Li (Engineering)
    "The effects of different simulated environmental factors on the voltage performance of microbial fuel cells with varying anode-embedding depths." Joyce and Ivy worked under the supervision of Dr. Sophia Suarez and Mr. Domenec Paterno in the Department of Physics at Brooklyn College.
  • Jennifer Duong (Engineering)
    "Loading lauric acid into electrospun polystyrene nanofibers." Jennifer worked under the supervision of Dr. Ping Lu and Ms. Rawan Ghaban in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at Long Island University.
  • Vincent Wang & Jessie Zheng (Engineering)
    "Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue using electrospun nanofibers." Jessie and Vincent worked under the supervision of Dr. Ping Lu and Ms. Simone Murray in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at Long Island University.

Digital Badge results for the 2018 Regeneron Science Talent Search

Posted on Tuesday, January 9, 2018 by for Awards, STS.

Since 2013, the Society for Science and the Public has been awarding digital badges as part of the Regeneron Science Talent Search (STS). The Research Report Badge is awarded to an entrant who has submitted a well-written, college-level, journal-style research report based upon his or her own independent science research. The Student Initiative Badge is awarded to an entrant who has exhibited extraordinary effort and dedication in her or her pursuit of scientific research and has made great accomplishments relative to the resources available to him or her. 9 Midwood Science students collected 8 Research Report Badges and 6 Student Initiative Badges.

Research Report and Student Initiative

Regeneron Science Talent Search 2018 Student Initiative Badge
  • Jennifer Duong
    "Loading lauric acid into electrospun polystyrene nanofibers." Jennifer worked under the supervision of Dr. Ping Lu and Ms. Rawan Ghaban in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at Long Island University.
  • Sarah Elmosbah
    "A novel type of immunoglobulin that arose in early vertebrates." Sarah worked under the supervision of Dr. Ellen Hsu in the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology at SUNY Downstate Medical Center.
  • Hafsa Fatima
    "The effect of temperature on the frequency of vocalization of Myiopsitta monachus." Hafsa worked under the supervision of Dr. Frank Grasso in the Department of Psychology at Brooklyn College.
  • Aushna Saleem
    "The effects of age on monk parakeet aggressive and social behavior." Aushna worked under the supervision of Dr. Frank Grasso in the Department of Psychology at Brooklyn College.
  • Jessie Zheng
    "Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue using electrospun nanofibers." Jessie worked under the supervision of Dr. Ping Lu and Ms. Simone Murray in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at Long Island University.

Research Report

Regeneron Science Talent Search 2018 Research Report Badge
  • Emily Orman
    "Immunoglobulin gene diversity found in an early vertebrate (Callorhinchus milii) and its impact on the understanding of vertebrate evolution and immunity." Emily worked under the supervision of Dr. Ellen Hsu in the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology at SUNY Downstate Medical Center.
  • Katie Nikishina
    "Capillary action on 20% polystyrene in dimethylformamide nanofibers partially immersed in paraffin wax." Katie worked under the supervision of Dr. Ping Lu and Ms. Simone Murray in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at Long Island University.
  • Naila Mirza
    "Effect of season on the group size of the Myiopsitta monachus." Naila worked under the supervision of Dr. Frank Grasso in the Department of Psychology at Brooklyn College.

Student Initiative

  • Noran Abo-Donia
    "A comparison of chlorophyll levels in native and invasive plant species." Noran worked under the supervision of Dr. Kathleen Nolan in the Department of Biology and Health Promotions at St. Francis College.

Three more things

Posted on Tuesday, June 27, 2017 by for ACT-SO, Awards, Brooklyn College, Miscellaneous.

Steve Jobs of Apple used to end his keynote speeches with the phrase "One more thing". Well I can do better than Steve Jobs. I have three more things I want to tell you. Steve Jobs pretended like he almost forgot to tell you Apple's one impressive thing, but I actually forgot to tell you about Midwood Science's three impressive things. (And probably another three, but we'll save them for another day.)

Amna Aslam wins Gold, Jasleen Kaur wins Bronze at NYC ACT-SO

Posted on Wednesday, May 3, 2017 by for ACT-SO, Awards.

Midwood Science students sweep again at Brooklyn College Science Research Day

Posted on Friday, May 5, 2017 by for Awards, Brooklyn College.

Midwood Science projects strength again at the 2nd Teptu STEM and Entrepreneurship Conference

Posted on Friday, April 21, 2017 by for Awards, Miscellaneous.

2017 Midwood Science Fair Results

Posted on Friday, June 2, 2017 by for Awards, Science Fair.

And the winners are…

1st Place

Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Zoe Robertson
Buffers for Acid Rain
Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Ahmad Choudhry & Daniel Gaft
Squirm of the Worm

2nd Place

Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Ifra Khan
Birth Order and Personality
Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Humayara Karim & Zuha Ahmed
The Search for Bacteria
Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Zara Nadeem
The Vitamin C Concentration In Homemade Orange Juice vs. Brand Name

3rd Place

Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Maqadus Sakhi & Fizza Nayab
What the fizz?
Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Emily Movsumova
Testing the Efficiency of Acids on the Rate of Milk Curdling by Using Spectrophotometry Analysis

Honorable Mention

Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Tiffany Huynh & Fiona Lin
Do Seeds Need H2O2?
Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Sonel Rubinstein
A Taste of Bacteria
Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Allen Borshch & Andrew Kobrin
Electrolyte Concentration of Liquids
Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Nimrah Naseer
Rust Busters
Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Ashley Chen & Amy Chen
The effect of different colored solutions on the absorption of light
Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Jie Tang
Kill the Plastic Bottles!
Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Yvette Somersel & Michelle Koshelyuk
Calculating Vitamin C Using Titration
 

Midwood Science students sweep again at Brooklyn College Science Research Day

Posted on Friday, May 5, 2017 by for Awards, Brooklyn College.

Every spring, the Brooklyn College community gathers for the annual Science Research Day. This event showcases the research of high school, undergraduate, and graduate students at Brooklyn College and other CUNY schools. On Friday, May 5, 2017 around 150 students presented their research across 14 categories in STEM, with over 50 faculty members and students from the college serving as judges. Midwood won all three awards in the high school division. For the second year in a row, a junior from Dr. Frank Grasso's Biomimetic and Cognitive Robotics lab won the top prize. Congratulations to Aushna Saleem, Nomon Mohammad, and Jasleen Kaur.

  1. Aushna Saleem
    "Listen to me! Older monk parakeets vocalize significantly more than young in social stiuations." Aushna worked under the supervision of Dr. Frank Grasso and Dr. Andrew Fulmer in the Department of Psychology at Brooklyn College.
  2. Nomon Mohammad
    "Anthraquinone as an effective electrolyte for redox flow batteries." Nomon worked under the supervision of Dr. Sophia Suarez and Mr. Domenec Paterno in the Department of Physics at Brooklyn College.
  3. Jasleen Kaur
    "Evaluating efficient methods for determining bioaccessible lead." Jasleen worked under the supervision of Dr. Zhongqi (Joshua) Cheng and Ms. Sara Perl Egendorf in the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Brooklyn College.

Amna Aslam wins Gold, Jasleen Kaur wins Bronze at NYC ACT-SO

Posted on Wednesday, May 3, 2017 by for ACT-SO, Awards.

The New York Academic, Cultural, Technological, Scientific Olympics (NYC ACT-SO) was held Saturday, April 22, 2017 at Edward R. Murrow High School. Often called the "Olympics of the Mind", ACT-SO is a youth program under the administrative aegis of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Students compete in one of 28 academic categories, including 8 sciences. Midwood had 2 medalists this year — Amna Aslam (Gold) and Jasleen Kaur (Bronze). As a gold medalist, Amna goes on to compete in the National ACT-SO July 20–23, 2017 at the 108th NAACP National Convention in Baltimore, Maryland. Wish her good luck.

  1. Amna Aslam received a Gold Medal and $500 in Biology/Microbiology for her project "Role of nucleolar stress factors in DNA damage response." Amna worked under the supervision of Dr. Anjana D. Saxena in the Department of Biology at Brooklyn College.
  2. Jasleen Kaur received a Bronze Medal and $200 in Earth and Space Sciences for her project "Evaluating efficient methods for determining bioaccessible lead." Jasleen worked under the supervision of Dr. Zhongqi (Joshua) Cheng and Ms. Sara Perl Egendorf in the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Brooklyn College.

Midwood Science projects strength at the 2nd Teptu

Posted on Friday, April 21, 2017 by for Awards, Miscellaneous.

Teptu is a nonprofit organization of (mostly young) entrepreneurs headquartered in New York City dedicated to providing educational opportunities and fostering awareness in both entrepreneurship and science, technology, engineering and math (STEM). On Monday, April 3, 2017 Teptu held their second annual STEM and Entrepreneurship Conference (a.k.a. Teptu Brink) at the Museum of the Moving Image in Astoria, Queens. Over 100 students from about a dozen NYC schools were present for the finals round — including 22 Midwood students. Amna Aslam and Mahmoud Abouelkheir made it into the top 10. Spirits were kept high during the competition with engaging guest speakers and music from an appropriately loud rock band and a soothingly mellow Japanese-American jazz trio. "Not enough snacks" was the only complaint heard.

  • Amna Aslam
    "Role of nucleolar stress factors in DNA damage response." Amna worked under the supervision of Dr. Anjana D. Saxena in the Department of Biology at Brooklyn College.
  • Mahmoud Abouelkheir (Microbiology)
    "Intra-microcolony spatial positioning affects antibiotic susceptibility in Neisseria gonorrhoeae."
    Mahmoud worked under the supervision of Dr. Nicolas Biais in the Department of Biology at Brooklyn College.

7 Midwood students receive NYCSEF awards; Mahmoud Abouelkheir receives ISEF award; Lilin Liu awarded Brooklyn Navy Yard internship

Posted on Sunday, April 2, 2017 by for Awards, ISEF, NYCSEF.

NYCSEF is the annual New York City Science and Engineering Fair with hundreds of participants from across the five boroughs. Roughly 400 participants are selected from 700–800 entries to participate in the Preliminary Round held at City College. The top 25% of these go on to the Finals Round at the American Museum of Natural History. These students compete against one another for various awards, internships, scholarships, and cash prizes. The top 16 projects go on to represent NYC at the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair (ISEF) in Los Angeles, California May 14–19.

NYCSEF logo

Midwood Science is proud to congratulate Mahmoud Abouelkheir for receiving the highest award of the competition — the Intel ISEF Award. Lilin Liu received an award from the Brooklyn Navy Yard Development Corporation, which includes a paid internship. Allan Nosov and Nomon Mohammad also received special awards. Vivian Luu, Minna Zeldin, and Amna Aslam rounded out the list of award winners.

This year's Finalists worked in the Departments of Biology, Physics, and Earth and Environmental Sciences at Brooklyn College; the offices of NOAA-CREST at City College; and the Flow Cytometry Core Facility at the Hospital for Special Surgery. Special thanks to all the mentors for their dedication and hard work.

NYCSEF First Award and Intel ISEF Award

ISEF logo
  • Mahmoud Abouelkheir (Microbiology)
    "Intra-microcolony spatial positioning affects antibiotic susceptibility in Neisseria gonorrhoeae."
    Mahmoud worked under the supervision of Dr. Nicolas Biais in the Department of Biology at Brooklyn College.

NYCSEF Second Award

  • Allan Nosov (Earth & Environmental Sciences)
    "Lapse rate analysis — model versus observations."
    Allan worked under the supervision of Dr. Brian Vant-Hull in the office of NOAA-CREST at City College. Allan also won a NASA Earth System Science Award for a project that offers the greatest insight into the Earth's interconnected systems.
  • Nomon Mohammad (Engineering)
    "Anthraquinone as an effective electrolyte for redox flow batteries."
    Nomon worked under the supervision of Mr. Domenec Paterno and Dr. Sophia Suarez in the Department of Physics at Brooklyn College. Nomon also received the ASM Materials Education Foundation Award for outstanding research related to materials science.

NYCSEF Third Award

Brooklyn Navy Yard Development Corporation logo
  • Lilin Liu (Earth & Environmental Sciences)
    "The effectiveness of x‑ray fluorescence on lead contaminated vegetables."
    Lilin worked under the supervision of Dr. Zhongqi (Joshua) Cheng in the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Brooklyn College. Lilin also won a Brooklyn Navy Yard Award for an exceptional project that promotes the Navy Yard's commitment to academic excellence and scientific inquiry.
  • Vivian Luu (Chemistry)
    "A variable temperature study of the conductivity and activation energy of aqueous solutions of VOSO4 in 1 M TFSA."
    Vivian worked under the supervision of Mr. Domenec Paterno and Dr. Sophia Suarez in the Department of Physics at Brooklyn College.
  • Minna Zeldin (Medicine & Health Sciences)
    "Circuit amplification with DNA strand displacement cascade for the evolution of cell surfaces."
    Minna worked under the supervision of Dr. Sergei Rudchenko in the Flow Cytometry Core Facility at the Hospital for Special Surgery.
  • Amna Aslam (Microbiology)
    "Role of nucleolar stress factors in DNA damage response."
    Amna worked under the supervision of Dr. Anjana D. Saxena in the Department of Biology at Brooklyn College.

7 Midwood students advance to NYCSEF finals

Posted on Tuesday, March 28, 2017 by for Awards, NYCSEF.

The New York City Science and Engineering Fair (NYCSEF) is the city’s largest high school research competition. More than 700 students from around the city submitted applications in 2017. The top 130 projects were selected to advance to the Finals Round on Tuesday, March 28, 2017 at the American Museum of Natural History. Midwood High School sent 7 students to this year’s competition under the big blue whale. Awards will be presented on Friday, March 31, 2017 in the Tribeca Performing Arts Center at the Borough of Manhattan Community College 4:00–6:00 PM.

7 students arranged around a large lunar globe
Vivian Luu, Amna Aslam, Nomon Mohammad, Allan Nosov,
Mahmoud Abouelkeir, Minna Zeldin, Lilin Liu

  • Mahmoud Abouelkheir
    "Intra-microcolony spatial positioning affects antibiotic susceptibility in Neisseria gonorrhoeae." Mahmoud worked under the supervision of Dr. Nicolas Biais in the Department of Biology at Brooklyn College.
  • Amna Aslam
    "Role of nucleolar stress factors in DNA damage response." Amna worked under the supervision of Dr. Anjana D. Saxena in the Department of Biology at Brooklyn College.
  • Vivian Luu
    "A variable temperature study of the conductivity and activation energy of aqueous solutions of VOSO4 in 1 M TFSA." Vivian worked under the supervision of Mr. Domenec Paterno and Dr. Sophia Suarez in the Department of Physics at Brooklyn College.
  • Lilin Liu
    "The effectiveness of x‑ray fluorescence on lead contaminated vegetables." Lilin worked under the supervision of Dr. Zhongqi (Joshua) Cheng in the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Brooklyn College.
  • Nomon Mohammad
    "Anthraquinone as an effective electrolyte for redox flow batteries." Nomon worked under the supervision of Mr. Domenec Paterno and Dr. Sophia Suarez in the Department of Physics at Brooklyn College.
  • Allan Nosov
    "Lapse rate analysis — model versus observations." Allan worked under the supervision of Dr. Brian Vant-Hull in the office of NOAA-CREST at City College.
  • Minna Zeldin
    "Circuit amplification with DNA strand displacement cascade for the evolution of cell surfaces." Minna worked under the supervision of Dr. Sergei Rudchenko in the Department of Flow Cytometry at Hospital for Special Surgery.

The big blue whale suspended over the Millstein Hall of Ocean Science
Under the big blue whale

News update from Midwood Science

Posted on Sunday, March 19, 2017 by for Awards, ISEF, JSHS, Media, Ocean Science, Robotics, St. Joseph's, STS.

Here’s what we’ve been up to in 2017 so far (plus one story from 2016 I finally got around to writing). More good news is sure to follow.

Midwood collects top awards at St. Joseph’s College

Posted on Sunday, February 5, 2017 by for St. Joseph’s.

Nomon Mohammad and Hufsa Tasnim are JSHS Semifinalists

Posted on Friday, February 10, 2017 by for JSHS.

Robotics Team Rolls into Victory at FTC

Posted on Sunday, January 22, 2017 by for Robotics.

Ocean Science Team prepares for competiton

Posted on Sunday, January 22, 2017 by for Ocean Science.

Nomon Mohammed receives 2 badges in the 2017 Regeneron STS

Posted on Wednesday, January 11, 2017 by for Awards, STS.

Urooj Ansari and Bilal Azhar appear on News 12 Brooklyn

Posted on Friday, May 6, 2016 by for ISEF, Media.

Nomon Mohammad and Hufsa Tasnim are JSHS Semifinalists

Posted on Friday, February 10, 2017 by for Awards, JSHS.

Husfsa and Nomon standing in front of stairs holding certificates

On Sunday, February 5th, 2017 two Midwood Students — Hufsa Tasnim and Nomon Mohammad — were chosen as semifinalists to present in front of judges and other semifinalists at York College for the New York City Metro Junior Science and Humanities Symposium (JSHS). Both students won second place in their individual categories. Nomon Mohammad was chosen to move forward as one of the top 10 finalists in the city. Once again, our research students have not failed to make Midwood proud!

  • Nomon Mohammad
    "Anthraquinone as an effective electrolyte for redox flow batteries." Nomon worked under the supervision of Dr. Sophia Suarez and Mr. Domenec Paterno in the Department of Physics at Brooklyn College.
  • Hufsa Tasnim
    "Epistatic interaction between sgo‑1 and htp‑2 mutants in chromosome and centrosome inheritance." Hufsa worked under the supervision of Dr. Mara Schvarzstein in the Department of Biology at Brooklyn College

Written by Noor Asif and Pauletta Lazarevskiy (Class of 2017).

Midwood collects top awards at St. Joseph’s College

Posted on Sunday, February 5, 2017 by for Awards, St. Joseph's.

On February 4th 2017, the 22nd Annual High School Poster Session was held at St. Joseph’s College in Fort Green, Brooklyn. 22 midwood students presented their research findings at the event to multiple judges. Midwood faced strong competition from many schools including Union City, which had twice as many students as Midwood. Midwood students took away all first and second place awards as well as 4 honorable mentions.

  1. Jennifer Phu and Elizabeth Skapley
    "Synthesis of trifluorinated alkynes as intermediates to catechol synthesis." Jennifer and Elizabeth worked under the supervision of Dr. Wayne F.K. Schnatter in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at Long Island University.
  2. Marco Ramirez
    "Alkyl chain length influence on conductivity and activation energy of pyrrolidinium-based RTILs." Marco worked under the supervision of Dr. Sophia Suarez and Mr. Domenec Paterno in the Department of Physics at Brooklyn College.
Jennifer and Elizabeth standing in front of their poster Marco standing in front of his poster
  1. Amna Aslam
    "Role of nucleolar stress factors in DNA damage response." Amna worked under the supervision of Dr. Anjana D. Saxena in the Department of Biology at Brooklyn College.
  2. Mahmoud Abouelkheir
    "Intra-microcolony spatial positioning affects antibiotic susceptibility in Neisseria gonorrhoeae." Mahmoud worked under the supervision of Dr. Nicolas Biais in the Department of Biology at Brooklyn College.
Amna standing in front of her poster Mahmoud standing in front of his poster
  1. Erica Levin
    "Determining the mercury concentrations in the atmosphere using a biotracker." Erica worked under the supervision of Dr. Anthony Carpi and Dr. Erin Mann in the Department of Sciences at John Jay College.
  2. Vivian Luu
    "A variable temperature study of the conductivity and activation energy of aqueous solutions of VOSO4 in 1 M TFSA." Vivian worked under the supervision of Dr. Sophia Suarez and Mr. Domenec Paterno in the Department of Physics at Brooklyn College.
  3. Jasleen Kaur
    "Evaluating efficient methods for determining bioaccessible lead." Jasleen worked under the supervision of Dr. Zhongqi (Joshua) Cheng and Ms. Sara Perl Egendorf in the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Brooklyn College.
  4. Whitney Wong and Yang Fan (Angel) Zou
    "Inducement of LEA proteins from Ramazzottius varieornatus for desiccation tolerant Escherichia coli." Whitney and Angel worked under the supervision of Dr. Ellen Jorgensen and Mr. William Shindel at Genspace NYC.

Group photo of the Midwood winners, standing shoulder to shoulder in a row
All 10 award winners from Midwood High School, left to right: Vivian Luu, Jasleen Kaur, Mahmoud Abouelkheir, Marco Ramirez, Elizabeth Skapley, Jennifer Phu, Whitney Wong, Amna Aslam, Yang Fan Angel Zou, Erica Levin

Written by Noor Asif and Pauletta Lazarevskiy (Class of 2017).

Nomon Mohammed receives 2 badges in the 2017 Regeneron STS

Posted on Wednesday, January 11, 2017 by for Awards, STS.

Midwood Science senior Nomon Mohammad received two digital badges for his entry in the 2017 Regeneron Science Talent Search (STS). The Society for Science and the Public in partnership with Regeneron Pharmaceuticals awards digital badges to inspire learning, confirm accomplishment, and validate the acquisition of knowledge or skills as part of the STS. Nomon was awarded the Research Report Badge for "a well-written, college-level, journal-style research report" and the Student Initiative Badge for "extraordinary effort and dedication in pursuit of scientific research" and "great accomplishments relative to the resources available".

Nomon worked under the supervision of Dr. Sophia Suarez and Mr. Domenec Paterno in the Department of Physics at Brooklyn College. The title of his project was "Anthraquinone as an effective electrolyte for redox flow batteries". Dr. Suarez has been a strong supporter of high school science research having worked with 31 Midwood students in the past 8 years (and with students from Murrrow, Madison, and elsewhere). Mr. Paterno is an outstanding undergraduate student with past degree work and professional experience in economics and mathematics education. Extra thanks to Dr. Suarez and Mr. Paterno.

 badge  badge

The Science Talent Search is as old as Midwood — 75 years. The STS has been sponsored by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation (1942–1998), the Intel Corporation (1998–2016), and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals (2016–????). You will sometimes hear old-timers refer to the STS as "The Westinghouse" or "The Intel". Some even call the Science Research program at Midwood by these names — but they shouldn’t. We are Midwood Science Research.

2016 Midwood Science Fair Results

Posted on Friday, June 10, 2016 by for Awards, Science Fair.

And the winners are…

1st Place

Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Calvin Huynh
Effect of Calcium on Hatch Rates of Brine Shrimp
Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Alice Mo & Md Hoque
The Buzz about Honey: Testing the reliability of honey labels from DNA

2nd Place

Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Katie Nikishina
The Truth Behind the Vitamin C Concentration in Homemade and Brand Name Juices
Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Shawal Malik
Vitamin C Concentration in Orange Juices
Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Noran Abo-Donia & Saba Iqbal
Is your cereal genetically modified?

3rd Place

Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Christina Ng
The Fizzy Chemistry of Bath Bombs
Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Jessie Zheng & Jennifer Duong
The Buzz about Honey: Determining the Botanical Origins of Honey Using DNA Barcode

Honorable Mention

Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Savlatjon Rahmatulloev
Aloe Vera Preservation
Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Amy Leong
The Effect of Magnetic Fields on Water Flow
Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Renata Sakaeva
Testing the Effectiveness of Natural Antifungal Agents vs. Drugstore Antifungal Agents
Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Benjamin Nguyen
The Effect of Temperature and Direct vs. Refracted Light on a Solar Cell’s Ability to Absorb Voltage
Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Hebah Jihad
What’s in a Face? Are Composite Faces More Attractive than Real Faces?
Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Hafsa Fatima & Naila Mirza
The Verification of a Non-Genetically Modified Protein Bar
Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Elizabeth Joseph & Sarah Elmosbah
To Be or Tu-Nah To Be
Traditional photo of the award winner holding their trophy standing in front of their poster board
Lisa Lu & Beien Lin
Phantom Sensations

Midwood students participate in award winning ACE Mentor Program

Posted on Wednesday, May 11, 2016 by for Awards, Miscellaneous.

Team 30 from the ACE Mentor Program of Greater New York City won First Place and $5,000 at the CIRT-ACE Mentor National Design Competition for their New York City shoreline project, "RESILIEN-City". Midwood students William Xie, Adam Abdelhadi, and Jhecy Balansag were members of Team 30. Midwood student Leutrim Cahani was in Team 21.

Members of Team 30 posing in front of a CIRT/ACE backdrop. 2 team members holding posters describing their project on either side. Presenter Denise Calungsod standing center holding a bouquet of flowers.CIRT logo
ACE of Greater NYC/Team 30 at the CIRT-ACE Mentor National Design Competition. The presenter for Team 30 was Denise Calungsod (holding flowers) of LaGuardia High School. Source: CIRT.

The ACE Mentor Program is a not-for-profit organization that helps prepare high school students for careers in architecture, construction, and engineering through mentoring by industry professionals. ACE teams are made up of 15–30 students and 5–7 mentors from different industry disciplines. Top teams from across the US compete at the National Design Competition, which is organized and judged by the CEO members of the Construction Industry Round Table (CIRT). This year’s finals round was held on April 28, 2016 at the Marriott Metro Center in Washington, DC.

ACE logo

ACE has grown to more than 8,000 students and 2,500 mentors in 200 cities and 40 states. The ACE Mentor Program of Greater New York City has served over 5,000 students in New York and 65,000 students nationwide. 72% of ACE students are minorities and 49% are female. ACE New York has awarded $1,887,000 in scholarships to 915 program graduates. Interested students should apply over the summer or at the start of the academic year.

  • High school students, particularly from under-represented populations, are introduced to careers in the design and construction fields.
  • Teams are made up of 15–30 students and 5–7 mentors from different industry disciplines.
  • A Team Leader sets the project schedule, prepares meeting agendas and may host or arrange the meeting location.
  • At least 15 biweekly meetings are held from 4 to 6 PM during the school year.
  • Mentors present industry overviews, assign activities from ACE’s Best Practices Manual and guide the students through the development of a design project.
  • At the end of the season, students present their project just as a real design team would present to a potential client.
  • Scholarships are awarded to top students at a luncheon in May.

Screenshot of Leutrim, seated, talking to offscreen interviewer.Skanska logo
Midwood Science student Leutrim Cahani of Team 21 describes what he appreciates about the ACE Mentor program in a Skanska USA promotional video on YouTube.

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